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Types of refrigerants in refrigeration systems and development trends

Refrigerant is a key component in the refrigeration system, which continuously evaporates and condenses in the refrigeration cycle, thus realizing the transfer of heat. With the progress of science and technology and the enhancement of environmental protection needs, the types and applications of refrigerants are constantly developing and changing. This paper will introduce the types of refrigerants used in refrigeration systems worldwide, as well as the physical properties of each type of refrigerant, the main application equipment, the comparative advantages, and the latest development trends in the world.
Types of refrigerants and their physical properties
There are many types of refrigerants, which can be mainly divided into the following categories according to their chemical properties and application scenarios: chlorofluorocarbon (CFC): CFC is a widely used refrigerant in the early days, such as R12, R22, etc. They have excellent physical properties and good refrigeration effect. They have excellent physical properties and good refrigeration effect, but they have been phased out due to the chlorine content and destructive effect on the ozone layer. Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC): HFC is currently the mainstream refrigerant, such as R134a, R410a, etc.. They do not contain chlorine elements and have no destructive effect on the ozone layer, but the global greenhouse effect is larger and faces the pressure of being replaced. Hydroxyfluorocarbons (HFO): HFO is a new generation of refrigerants, such as R1234yf, R1234ze and so on. They have a very low global greenhouse effect and are the direction of future development.
The main application equipment of refrigerant
Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC): Due to the destruction of the ozone layer, CFC has been phased out in most applications and is still used only in some special equipment. Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC): HFC is widely used in domestic and commercial air conditioners, refrigerated freezing equipment, heat pumps and other equipment. Hydroxyfluorocarbon (HFO): HFO is currently used in automotive air conditioning and is expected to replace HFC in more equipment in the future.
Comparative advantages of refrigerants
Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC): the advantage is excellent physical properties, good refrigeration effect; the disadvantage is the destruction of the ozone layer, has been eliminated. Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC): Advantage is that it has no destructive effect on the ozone layer and good refrigeration effect; disadvantage is that the global greenhouse effect is larger. Hydroxyfluorocarbon (HFO): the advantage is that the global greenhouse effect is very low, is the direction of future development; the disadvantage is that the current cost is higher.
The latest international development trend
Europe and the United States as the global leader in the refrigeration industry, the development trend of its refrigerants has an important impact on the world. In Europe, due to the high importance of environmental protection, the application of HFO has been rapidly promoted. The European Union has clearly stipulated that from 2020, refrigerants with a GWP (Global Warming Potential) of more than 2,500 will be banned from use in new refrigeration equipment, which will further promote the application of HFO. In the U.S., although the importance of environmental protection is not as high as in Europe, it is also gradually reducing the use of HFC and promoting HFO. the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has approved a variety of HFO refrigerants in various types of equipment applications.
As the world's largest producer and consumer of refrigeration equipment, China has an important influence on the development trend of refrigerants. Currently, refrigeration equipment in China mainly uses HFC as refrigerant. However, with the development of global environmental protection trend, China is also gradually promoting the application of HFO. China has already started to use HFO in areas such as automobile air conditioning, and is expected to replace HFC in more equipment in the future.Overall, the trend of refrigerant development is toward environmental protection, high efficiency and safety.